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So much of intonation is dependent upon your ability to hear discrete differences in your sound as you play. Recording yourself is an invaluable tool for improving intonation and I recommend a high quality digital recording device – here’s one that won’t break the bank but provides nice digital sound quality: Tascam digital recorder. Be brutally honest when you listen back to recordings of yourself – is it really in tune or just in the ball park?

You must own a tuner to improve intonation. If you don’t own one, stop reading now and go buy one. Don’t worry – we’ll still be here when you get back! You can get a tuner as an app for your iPhone or you can buy a hand-held tuner for very little money, considering its importance to your improvement.

Here is a video tutorial on how to use a tuner to improve your trombone intonation:

Tiny deviations in where you place your slide matter to your intonation. I call your ability to discern these tiny deviations your “Slide Sensitivity” and those with excellent slide sensitivity have a better chance of having exquisite intonation than those who don’t. You can cultivate slide sensitivity by following these suggestions:

1. Lube up your slide so it’s always super smooth. I recommend Slide-O-Mix.

2. Record yourself every day using a high quality digital recording device (see above for a recommendation).

3. When you listen back to yourself, be brutally honest. Intonation is not a matter of opinion; it’s either IN TUNE or it’s not!

4. To a trombonist, how a note is approached matters. If you are playing in the key of C major, for example, are you always flat when coming in to second position to play an E-natural? This is just one of literally hundreds of possible habitual movement patterns that define your intonation. You may have bad habits you don’t even know about and to improve intonation, you must uncover them and fix them.

Here’s a great way to do this: Consider the following phrase:

Try playing this phrase at about quarter = 92.  Once you learn the notes, put a tuner on your music stand and turn it on. Now play the phrase again, adding a fermata as indicated. When you reach the fermata, hold the note and look at the tuner:

This will tell you if you have a habit of being sharp or flat in this particular context. It doesn’t mean, however, that all of your A-naturals are out of tune; in a different key they might be perfectly fine.

The point is to acknowledge the idea that we have certain intonation tendencies which are key-related. Figure out what your tendencies are and you are on your way to improving intonation.

5. It’s harder to play fast notes in tune than slow ones. If you are really struggling with intonation, start by tuning slow notes and progress to tuning faster ones. Don’t let yourself off the hook – don’t speed up until you are genuinely in tune.

6. Play duets with someone who plays better in tune than you do. Your teacher or someone with more experience than you are good candidates. This person does not have to be a trombone player.

Here’s an example of this point. This sounds file features me playing a Long Tone Duet with one of my students:

Long Tone Duet #23 (ii-V-I Pattern)

7. It’s easier to play in tune with another trombonist than with a piano. Again, if you are struggling with intonation, start by tuning with another trombone player and progress to playing with piano. By the way, many students only play with piano once or twice a year; not nearly enough to be good at it, but this is the arrangement you are graded on for your jury in college (!) Practice with your accompanist regularly if you want to play in tune with piano.

8. Pianos are tuned using equal temperament and trombonists are accustomed to playing in just intonation. Equal temperament means all the pitches are tuned to be 100 cents apart. (A cent is 1/100 of a half step.) So pianos play every key equally tempered – no adjustments are possible because it is a fixed pitch instrument.

Trombones and other wind and string instruments can adjust the pitch according to the context and in ensembles we do this (or SHOULD do it) all the time. In just intonation, we bring the major thirds down by 14 cents in order to sound in tune; fifths get raised 2 cents and minor thirds get raised 16 cents.



Here are some sounds files of trombone drones (tromdrones?!) on particular notes. Each sound file is about 2 minutes long. You can use them in a lot of different ways:

1. Play the scale with the drone, tuning each note

2. Play intervals with the drone to learn how to tune them

3. Play phrases which include the drone note, stopping when you reach the drone note. This will help you understand your intonation tendency in context.

4. Play with these exercises – Drone Drills. Download the PDF:


Drone drills


The drone drills are divided into keys. Print out the PDF and play each key with the following drones. Consider routing your computer sound through big speakers so you can easily hear the drone. Alternatively, play the drone through headphones or ear buds. In any event, play the drills softly so you can really hear how you are tuning with the drones.



Download B-flat Drone


Download A Drone


Download A-flat Drone


Download G Drone


Download G-flat Drone


Download F Drone


Download E Drone


Download E-flat Drone


Download D Drone


Download D-flat Drone


Download C Drone


Download B Drone

Here are some resources to help you with your intonation:

FS Tenor Bone scaledFS Bass Bone scaled

Purchase Flow Studies for Tenor Trombone.

Purchase Flow Studies for Bass Trombone.

I have also written some duets based upon several of the top trombone solos by extracting lines from the piano part and interspersing them with the solo part. Each player gets some of the solo and some of the accompaniment, so you learn the solo inside and out, in a manner of speaking.

Here is a sample of this project – the second movement from the Concertino by David. I am providing PDF downloads so you can print them out these parts and play the duet:

Trombone 1: David second movement

Trombone 2: David second movement

Solo Duet Training for Trombone Cover scaledThese duets are designed to assist trombone players in learning six of the most popular trombone solos. The two parts are equal in importance and difficulty. Solo Training Duets can be used to help students learn style and technique, as recreational musical diversions or even as additions to recitals.

“David Vining’s Solo Training Duets for Trombone are both enjoyable and challenging.  These duets are a unique and creative way to learn the most popular solo works for trombone.  We are always looking for good new duets to play with both colleagues and students, and these duets fit the bill on many levels.  I highly recommend them.” — Larry Zalkind, Eastman School of Music

Purchase Solo Duet Training

Here are a few more duet books that I have written:

LTD-Tbone-Front scaledLTD-Sauer-Front scaledLong Tone Duets provides an opportunity for trombonists to play long tones together, learning to blend tone quality, balance dynamics, and play in tune. Long Tone Duets contains a duet in every major key, and provides the perfect forum for teachers to discuss details of intonation, tone quality, blend, and balance with their students.

Purchase Long Tone Duets for Trombones.

Purchase Long Tone Duets, Ralph Sauer Edition.



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